Thai Food

Thai cuisine is the national cuisine of Thailand. Thai cuisine places emphasis on lightly prepared dishes with strong aromatic components. Some Thai cuisine is also known for being spicy. Balance, detail and variety are important to Thai cooking. Thai food is known for its balance of the five fundamental taste senses in each dish or the overall meal: hot (spicy), sour, sweet, salty, and (optional) bitter.

Thai meals typically consist of either a single dish or it will be rice (khao in Thai) with many complementary dishes served concurrently and shared by all. It is customary to serve more dishes than there are guests at a table.

Common ingredients include:

Kaempferia Panduratum

This erect annual plant with aromatic rhizomes and yellow brown roots, is used as a flavouring.

Fresh Pepper

Pepper is a branching, perennial climbing plant from whose fruiting spikes both white and black pepper are obtained. Used as a spice and condiment.

Sweet Basil

Sweet basil is an annual herbaceous plant, the fresh leaves of which are either eaten raw or used as flavouring in Thai cooking.


Galanga is an erect annual plant with aromatic, ginger-like rhizomes, and commonly used in Thai cooking as flavouring.


Shallots, or small red onion, are annual herbaceous plants. Underground bulbs comprise garlic like cloves. Shallot bulbs contain volatile oil, and are used as flavouring or seasoning agent.


Lime is used principally as a garnish for fish and meat dishes.

Lemon Grass

This erect annual plant resembles a coarse gray-green grass. Fresh leaves and grass are used as a flavouring.


Chili is an erect, branched, shrub-like herb with fruits used as garnishing and flavouring in Thai dishes.

Kaffir Lime Leaf

Kaffir limes are mostly used for their fragrant leaves. They are used as a flavouring and aromatic in Thai cuisine.

Sacred Basil

Sacred Basil is an annual herbaceous plant that resembles Sweet Basil but has a narrower and oftentimes reddish-purple leaves. The fresh leaves, whcih are used as a flavouring.


Ginger is an erect pant with thickened, fleshy and aromaticrhizomes. Used in different forms as a food, flavouring and spice.

Marsh Mint

The fresh leaves of this herbaceous plant are used as a flavouring and eaten raw in Thai cuisine.